Situated in Romanaţi Plain, Caracal is full of vestiges proving that this land has been inhabited even since prehistoric times. As evidence, are the archeological discoveries from Paleolithic, Neolithic, Bronze Era. It is situated between the ruins of the Roman castrum, Romula, and the Sucidava citadel. The name of the city has remained a dilemma in time, because of the determining events that marked the history of this community.
In year 215 A.D., the Roman Emperor Antonius Caracalla, after a campaign against the Goths on the current lands of Caracal, gave properties to the veterans in his army. In IX – X centuries, the Cumanians who migrated in the area of Caracal allegedly named the place kara-kale (the black fortress), since there are other joining communities bearing names specific to the Cumanians, such as Comanca, Comani, Comăniţa, etc. The first documentary attestation of Caracal is found on November 17, 1538, in a document issued by the Chancellery of the Wallachian Ruler, Radu-Vodă Paisie, by which he gives Radu Vel Culcer, “for being a just servant, several estates that he had purchased from Lady Marga of Caracal”.
Caracal City is situated in the south of the country, on the western bank of Olt river, at the Eastern border of Romanaţi Plain, at the contact line between its sub-divisions, Câmpul Înalt Leu-Rotunda and Caracal terrace. On November 24, 1994, Caracal was declared City (municipality).
In the frame of Olt county, Caracal City is in the southern half, 40 km away from Slatina, 40 km away from Corabia and 37 km away from Balş. From the furthest city in the region, Craiova, it is situated 54 km away towards the east.
Caracal city has the total area of 72 km2 , of which 11.28 km2 within the built-up area, and it has a population of 30,954 inhabitants. These sizes situate it immediately after Slatina City.
Caracal is the most important settlement in Romanaţi Plain, being the junction point of road and railway communication ways connecting south and north, along the Olt Valley, on the route Craiova-Roşiori de Vede-Bucharest.
The geographic coordinates that are met at the center of the city are: the 44 degree and 7 minute parallel of northern latitude, and the 24 degree and 21 minute eastern longitude meridian.
Caracal borders, to the east, Stoeneşti community - 12 km, and Fărcaşele community - 10 km, to the north, Cezieni community - 5 km and Dobrosloveni community - 7 km, to the west, Drăghiceni community - 5 km, and to the south, Redea community - 7 km and Deveselu community - 6 km. The settlements around the city are solely rural, in an agricultural area that is favorable fpor mechanized works and irrigations.
Caracal city is part of the IV Southern-Western Oltenia region, situated in the southern-western part of Romania, and it includes 5 counties: Dolj, Olt, Vâlcea, Mehedinţi, Gorj. The area of the region is of 25,212 km2, namely 12.25% of the area of Romania. The population is of 2,075,642 inhabitants, namely 10.31% of the population of Romania. Caracal is part of the Olt county.
The Southern-Western Oltenia region borders Bulgaria to the south; Muntenia region to the east, Southern-Muntenia region to the North, Banat Region to the West; Serbia to the West. Olt county has the area of 5,498 km2, the population of 436,400 inhabitants and the density of 79.37 inhabitants/km2. In Olt county there are 104 communities, 377 villages, 2 cities (municipalities) and 6 towns.