In 1934, The Credit and Aid Association of the Financial Clerks of Romanaţi organized a fund-raising ball, in order to incorporate a cultural Library.

In 1936, a public library is born, The Athenaeum Library, with 2,257 volumes, which used to function in Mărculescu brothers’ bookstore. Between 1936-1950, the library had 99 readers and used to lend several hundreds of books per year. Later, it became Preda Buzescu Library of the Cultural Home, and on November 1, 1950, it became the city library. At first, it functioned in only one room, and it had 426 readers in the first two months after the opening. The Athenaeum Library mergesin March 1951 with the Central District Library. There were collective reading sectors, distributed as follows: Boldu Cultural Home, with 7 sectors, Protoseni Cultural Home, with 5 sectors, and Athenaeum Cultural Home, with 5 sectors.

Caracal had, in 1954, two libraries, one on Jean Dobrescu street, the other on Filimon Sârbu street. In 1998, the Local Council decided that the City Library should bear the name of the Caracal-born poet, Virgil Carianopol.

The book fund of the Municipal Library amounts today to 75,000 volumes, distributed in its 5 sections: reading hall, adults – fiction novels, adults – specialized books, children and the neighborhood branch. In the collections of the library, one may find publications of the XIX century donated by Ilie Mărculescu and Ilie Constantinescu, in Greek, Turkish, German, French, English languages, first editions of Mihai Eminescu poems, Enciclopedia Britannica or Tout LUniverse. The library also has a book processing section and a press hall, that hosts an important fund of periodicals (newspapers and magazines). Every year, the institution organizes the Virgil Carianopol National festival of Poetry, and periodically, it organizes round tables, book exhibitions, reviews, meetings with the writers.

The library used to function on several locations. The first was at the ground floor of the former Parish House, on C. Poroineanu street, later Jean Dobrescu. Then, it moved to the ground floor of Uţă houses, on Cuza Vodă street. In 1958, it functioned in the former Palace of Justice, where the Culture House and the Local Council for Physical Culture and Sports were also incorporated. In 1960, it moved to Borsec street, and in 1993, to Carpaţi street. Since 2002, the institution has been functioning in the location of 18 A Iancu Jianu street.